Flora and fauna
Despite the undeniable depredation that Paraguay is suffering, as are all the counties of the word in modern times, the fauna and flora of this country dazzles because of its rich variety.
To touch on the fauna, the most recent data indicates that in Paraguay, there are currently 200 species of fish that survive, 645 species of birds, and 167 types of mammals, in addition to other species. According to pertinent studies, only 0.3% of the existing species of fish are fished for selling. The country has an important number of mammals, many of them little known in South America, and regarding birds, an enormous variety still survives, from parrots to tiny songbirds.
On the extensive list of animals native to Paraguay, those noteworthy of mention are the yaguareté, the mboi yaguá, the yaguá yvyguy, the capybara, the puma, the yurumí, the mboreví or tapir, the cayman, the deer, the caguaré, the carayá, the mykuré, and some on the endangered species list such as the Chilean coot, the aguará guazú and the saw-toothed duck. Among the numerous types of birds are the blue macaw, the tuyuyú cuartelero, the yrybú, the chahá, the charata, the ypaka’a, the songbird, the san francisco, the calandra lark, the corochiré and the ñakurutú (great horned owl).
The flora also reflects the diversity of the regions and sub-regions of the Paraguayan territory. In the case of the Chaco, semi-arid, thorny vegetation predominates in the west, sub-tropical forests in the northeast, and savannah with certain species such as the caranda’y, in the southeast. In the Eastern Region, different vegetation is found in the majority, with tropical forests, and savannahs profusely lined with an abundant system of rivers and streams. The vast forests of Alto Paraná include the Atlantic Forest, one of the 200 most important ecosystems on the planet, which also includes areas of Brazil and Argentina.
Among the numerous species of vegetation native to Paraguay are well-known trees such as the tajy, or lapacho, the curyupa’y, the yvyrayú, the palo santo, the carova, the yvyra pytá, the yvyraró, the urunde’y y the tataré. Among those that bear fruit are the pindó, the mbocayá or coconut palm, the arazá or guava tree, tje araticú, the aguaí, the ñandypá, the ñangapiry, the yvapurú, the yvapovó, the guavirá, the guaviyú, the yatayvá, the ingá, the pacurí and the yacarati’á. One cannot forget to mention on this list, the emblematic yerba mate, along with the ka’a he’e, the sweet yerba of Paraguay, along with some medicinal herbs like the kapi’i katí, the kapi’iky, the santa lucía morotí, the yate’i ka’a, the Paraguayan cedar, the yaguareté ka’a and the yaguarundí.
Paraguay has some 40 Protected Wildlife Areas, the largest of which is the Champions of the Chaco National Park, located in the northern part of the Western Region, is 780,000 hectares in size. Also located in this region are other important parks like the Guaraní Timané Reserve, the Inmakata Lagoon and Rio Negro National Park. Among the most important reserves in the Eastern Region is the Mbaracayú Forest.