Post-war and the 20th Century - The Chaco War

In 1932, there was a breakout of a second military conflict en less than a century: the Chaco War. President Ayala organized all the sectors that had been marginalized by flighty politics of the previous few years and prepared a peaceful occupation of these territories, at the same time, reinforcing the army.

With the attack by the Bolivians in Pitiantuta, the three-year war began, and again brought great economic and human loss to the country.  Paraguay won important victories in Boquerón and Campo Vía, and fought battles with admirable resistance in Nanawa and El Carmen, as well as they did on many other fronts.  The Paraguayan troops, commanded by José Félix Estigarribia won back the land and ended the conflict in 1935, although in the final peace accord, it conceded a large piece of land to Bolivia.

With the Chaco War finally ended, another period of conflicts began, with the revolution of Colonel Franco, in 1936. Upon the death of José Félix Esigarribia, General Higinio Morínigo assumed the presidency.

In 1947, another civil war broke out that caused several political parties—colorados, liberals, febreristas, and communists—to face off and resulted in exile of numerous compatriots.